Theoretical error formation and evaluation of acoustic source localization for cluster-based techniques

Shenxin Yin, Huapan Xiao, Caibin Xu, Mingxi Deng, Tribikram Kundu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this paper, the formation of theoretical error is presented to investigate the acoustic source localization (ASL) error that can be expected from traditional L-shaped, cross-shaped, square-shaped, and modified square-shaped sensor cluster arrangements. The response surface model based on the optimal Latin hypercube design is developed to theoretically study the effects of sensor placement parameters on the error evaluation index of root mean squared relative error (RMSRE) for the four techniques. The ASL results from the four techniques with the optimal placement parameters are analyzed theoretically. The relevant experiments are conducted for verifying the above theoretical research. The results show that the theoretical error, formed by the difference between the true and the predicted wave propagation directions is related to arrangement of sensors. The results also show that the sensor spacing and the cluster spacing are the two parameters that affect the ASL error most. Between these two parameters the sensor spacing has the stronger influence. The RMSRE increases with an increasing sensor spacing and a decreasing cluster spacing. Meanwhile, the interaction effect of placement parameters should be also emphasized, especially that between the sensor spacing and the cluster spacing for the L-shaped sensor cluster-based technique. Among the four cluster-based techniques, the newly modified square-shaped sensor cluster-based technique shows the smallest RMSRE and not the largest number of sensors. This research on error generation and analysis will provide guidance for the optimal sensor arrangements in cluster-based techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106982
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Acoustic source localization (ASL)
  • Cluster-based technique
  • Error evaluation
  • Placement parameter
  • Response surface model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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