The Utility of (1→3)-β-D-Glucan Testing in the Diagnosis of Coccidioidomycosis in Hospitalized Immunocompromised Patients

Mohanad M. Al-Obaidi, Parham Ayazi, Aishan Shi, Matthew Campanella, Elizabeth Connick, Tirdad T. Zangeneh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the Southwestern United States which is associated with high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Serology is the main diagnostic tool, although less sensitive among immunocompromised hosts. (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) is a non-specific fungal diagnostic test that may identify suspected coccidioidomycosis and other invasive fungal infections. We retrospectively investigated the utility of BDG between 2017 and 2021 in immunocompromised hosts with positive Coccidioides spp. cultures at our institutions. During the study period, there were 368 patients with positive cultures for Coccidioides spp.; among those, 28 patients were immunocompromised hosts, had both Coccidioides serology and BDG results available, and met other inclusion and exclusion criteria. Half of the patients had positive Coccidioides serology, and 57% had a positive BDG ≥ 80 pg/mL. Twenty-three (82%) had at least one positive test during their hospitalization. Among immunocompromised hosts with suspicion for coccidioidomycosis, the combination of Coccidioides serology and BDG can be useful in the initial work up and the timely administration of appropriate antifungal therapy. However, both tests failed to diagnose many cases, underscoring the need for better diagnostic techniques for identifying coccidioidomycosis in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number768
JournalJournal of Fungi
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • (1→3)-β-D-glucan
  • coccidioidomycosis
  • fungal diagnostics
  • immunocompromised

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science
  • Microbiology (medical)


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