The tiled bitmap forensic analysis algorithm

Kyriacos E. Pavlou, Richard T. Snodgrass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Tampering of a database can be detected through the use of cryptographically strong hash functions. Subsequently, applied forensic analysis algorithms can help determine when, what, and perhaps ultimately who and why. This paper presents a novel forensic analysis algorithm, the Tiled Bitmap Algorithm, which is more efficient than prior forensic analysis algorithms. It introduces the notion of a candidate set (all possible locations of detected tampering(s)) and provides a complete characterization of the candidate set and its cardinality. An optimal algorithm for computing the candidate set is also presented. Finally, the implementation of the Tiled Bitmap Algorithm is discussed, along with a comparison to other forensic algorithms in terms of space/time complexity and cost. An example of candidate set generation and proofs of the theorems and lemmata and of algorithm correctness can be found in the appendix, which can be found on the Computer Society Digital Library at

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4912205
Pages (from-to)590-601
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • And protection
  • Database management
  • Integrity
  • Security
  • Temporal databases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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