TY - JOUR

T1 - The third law of thermodynamics in open quantum systems

AU - Shastry, Abhay

AU - Xu, Yiheng

AU - Stafford, Charles A.

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Author(s).

PY - 2019/8/14

Y1 - 2019/8/14

N2 - We consider open quantum systems consisting of a finite system of independent fermions with arbitrary Hamiltonian coupled to one or more equilibrium fermion reservoirs (which need not be in equilibrium with each other). A strong form of the third law of thermodynamics, S(T) → 0 as T → 0, is proven for fully open quantum systems in thermal equilibrium with their environment, defined as systems where all states are broadened due to environmental coupling. For generic open quantum systems, it is shown that S(T) → g ln 2 as T → 0, where g is the number of localized states lying exactly at the chemical potential of the reservoir. For driven open quantum systems in a nonequilibrium steady state, it is shown that the local entropy Sx;T→0 as T(x) → 0, except for cases of measure zero arising due to localized states, where T(x) is the temperature measured by a local thermometer.

AB - We consider open quantum systems consisting of a finite system of independent fermions with arbitrary Hamiltonian coupled to one or more equilibrium fermion reservoirs (which need not be in equilibrium with each other). A strong form of the third law of thermodynamics, S(T) → 0 as T → 0, is proven for fully open quantum systems in thermal equilibrium with their environment, defined as systems where all states are broadened due to environmental coupling. For generic open quantum systems, it is shown that S(T) → g ln 2 as T → 0, where g is the number of localized states lying exactly at the chemical potential of the reservoir. For driven open quantum systems in a nonequilibrium steady state, it is shown that the local entropy Sx;T→0 as T(x) → 0, except for cases of measure zero arising due to localized states, where T(x) is the temperature measured by a local thermometer.

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U2 - 10.1063/1.5100182

DO - 10.1063/1.5100182

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85070736288

SN - 0021-9606

VL - 151

JO - Journal of Chemical Physics

JF - Journal of Chemical Physics

IS - 6

M1 - 064115

ER -