The Spitzer C2D survey of nearby dense cores. XI. Infrared and submillimeter observations of CB130

Hyo Jeong Kim, Neal J. Evans, Michael M. Dunham, Jo Hsin Chen, Jeong Eun Lee, Tyler L. Bourke, Tracy L. Huard, Yancy L. Shirley, Christopher De Vries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


We present new observations of the CB130 region composed of three separate cores. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we detected a Class 0 and a Class II object in one of these, CB130-1. The observed photometric data from Spitzer and ground-based telescopes are used to establish the physical parameters of the Class 0 object. Spectral energy distribution fitting with a radiative transfer model shows that the luminosity of the Class 0 object is 0.14-0.16 L 1, which is low for a protostellar object. In order to constrain the chemical characteristics of the core having the low-luminosity object, we compare our molecular line observations to models of lines including abundance variations. We tested both ad hoc step function abundance models and a series of self-consistent chemical evolution models. In the chemical evolution models, we consider a continuous accretion model and an episodic accretion model to explore how variable luminosity affects the chemistry. The step function abundance models can match observed lines reasonably well. The best-fitting chemical evolution model requires episodic accretion and the formation of CO2 ice from CO ice during the low-luminosity periods. This process removes C from the gas phase, providing a much improved fit to the observed gas-phase molecular lines and the CO2 ice absorption feature. Based on the chemical model result, the low luminosity of CB130-1 is explained better as a quiescent stage between episodic accretion bursts rather than being at the first hydrostatic core stage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number84
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 10 2011


  • ISM: individual objects (CB130)
  • astrochemistry
  • infrared: ISM
  • stars: formation
  • stars: low-mass
  • submillimeter: ISM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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