The Sonora Brown Dwarf Atmosphere and Evolution Models. I. Model Description and Application to Cloudless Atmospheres in Rainout Chemical Equilibrium

Mark S. Marley, Didier Saumon, Channon Visscher, Roxana Lupu, Richard Freedman, Caroline Morley, Jonathan J. Fortney, Christopher Seay, Adam J.R.W. Smith, D. J. Teal, Ruoyan Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

128 Scopus citations

Abstract

We present a new generation of substellar atmosphere and evolution models, appropriate for application to studies of L-, T-, and Y-type brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar planets. The models describe the expected temperature-pressure profiles and emergent spectra of atmospheres in radiative-convective equilibrium with effective temperatures and gravities within the ranges 200 ≤ Teff ≤ 2400 K and 2.5 ≤ log g le; 5.5. These ranges encompass masses from about 0.5 to 85 Jupiter masses for a set of metallicities ([M/H] = - 0.5 to + 0.5), C/O ratios (from 0.5 to 1.5 times that of solar), and ages. These models expand the diversity of model atmospheres currently available, notably to cooler effective temperatures and greater ranges in C/O. Notable improvements from past such models include updated opacities and atmospheric chemistry. Here we describe our modeling approach and present our initial tranche of models for cloudless, chemical equilibrium atmospheres. We compare the modeled spectra, photometry, and evolution to various data sets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number85
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume920
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 20 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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