The Resilience Education Program: Examining the efficacy of a Tier 2 internalizing intervention

Katie Eklund, Stephen P. Kilgus, Jared Izumi, Sarah L. DeMarchena, Elizabeth M. McCollom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This study reports on the results of a pilot study designed to evaluate the Resilience Education Program (REP): a brief Tier 2 intervention that includes small-group cognitive-behavioral instruction, paired with a modified check-in/check-out procedure. Three elementary school students demonstrating early indicators of internalizing behavior concerns participated in the current intervention. A multiple-baseline single-case design was used to evaluate intervention effects. Outcome data corresponded to teacher-collected direct behavior rating data, which were specific to each student's particular internalizing concerns (e.g., negative affect, withdrawal) and were collected on a daily basis during times when these behaviors were most problematic. Visual analysis and effect size estimates were used in evaluating intervention effects relative to baseline conditions for each student. Results indicated REP yielded a moderate intervention effect for two out of three students (Tau-U = 0.72 and 0.68, respectively), each of whom exhibited an immediate reduction in internalizing behavior. Both students also demonstrated an absence of negative behaviors in the maintenance phase. Findings for the third student were obfuscated by low behavioral rates during baseline. Following the intervention, educators rated REP as a socially valid intervention. Limitations of this study and future directions for research and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2114-2129
Number of pages16
JournalPsychology in the Schools
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • check-in check-out
  • cognitive-behavior therapy
  • internalizing behavior
  • school mental health
  • single case design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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