The reliability and validity of the Loadsol® under various walking and running conditions

Kristen E. Renner, D. S. Blaise Williams, Robin M. Queen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


The assessment of loading during walking and running has historically been limited to data collection in laboratory settings or with devices that require a computer connection. This study aims to determine if the loadsol® —a single sensor wireless insole—is a valid and reliable method of assessing force. Thirty (17 male and 13 female) recreationally active individuals were recruited for a two visit study where they walked (1.3 m/s) and ran (3.0 and 3.5 m/s) at a 0%, 10% incline, and 10% decline, with the visits approximately one week apart. Ground reaction force data was collected on an instrumented treadmill (1440 Hz) and with the loadsol® (100 Hz). Ten individuals completed the day 1 protocol with a newer 200 Hz loadsol®. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,k) were used to assess validity and reliability and Bland–Altman plots were generated to better understand loadsol® validity. Across conditions, the peak force ICCs ranged from 0.78 to 0.97, which increased to 0.84–0.99 with the 200 Hz insoles. Similarly, the loading rate ICCs improved from 0.61 to 0.97 to 0.80–0.96 and impulse improved from 0.61 to 0.97 to 0.90–0.97. The 200 Hz insoles may be needed for loading rate and impulse in running. For both walking and running, the loadsol® has excellent between-day reliability (>0.76).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number265
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Bland-Altman
  • Gait mechanics
  • Ground reaction force
  • In-shoe
  • Reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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