Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) confers an elevated risk of major amputation and delayed wound healing in diabetic patients with foot ulcers. The major international vascular societies recently developed evidence-based guidelines for the assessment and management of patients with chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI). CLTI represents the cohort of diabetic and non-diabetic patients who have PAD which is of sufficient severity to delay wound healing and increase amputation risk. Diabetic patients with CLTI are more likely to present with tissue loss, infection and have less favourable anatomy for revascularization than those without diabetes. Although diabetes is not consistently reported as a strong independent risk factor for limb loss, major morbidity and mortality in CLTI patients, it is impossible in clinical practice to isolate diabetes from comorbidities, such as end-stage renal disease and coronary artery disease which occur more commonly in diabetic patients. Treatment of CLTI in the diabetic patient is complex and should involve a multi-disciplinary team to optimize outcomes. Clinicians should use an integrated approach to management based on patient risk assessment, an assessment of the severity of the foot pathology and a structured anatomical assessment of arterial disease as suggested by the Global Vascular Guidelines for CLTI.
- chronic limb-threatening ischaemia
- diabetic foot infection
- foot perfusion
- wound healing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism