Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) who developed postoperative hypertension or hypotension requiring the administration of intravenous vasoactive medication (IVMED). Methods We examined consecutive, primary elective CEA performed by 128 surgeons within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database (2003-2010) and compared outcomes of patients who required postoperative IVMED to treat hyper- or hypotension with those who did not. Outcomes included perioperative death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), hospital length of stay, and 1-year stroke or death. Propensity score matching was performed to facilitate risk-adjusted comparisons. Multivariable regression models were used to compare the association between IVMED and outcomes in unmatched and matched samples. Factors associated with use of IVMED in postoperative hypertension and hypotension were evaluated, and predictive performance of multivariable models was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Of 7677 elective CEAs identified, 23% received IVMED for treatment of either postoperative hypertension (11%) or hypotension (12%). Preoperative neurological symptomatic status (20%) was similar across cohorts. In the crude sample, the use of IVMED to treat postoperative hypertension was associated with increased 30-day mortality (0.7% vs 0.1%; P <.001), stroke (1.9% vs 1%; P =.018), MI (2.4% vs 0.5%; P <.001), and CHF (1.9% vs 0.5%; P <.001). The use of IVMED to treat postoperative hypotension was also associated with increased perioperative mortality (0.8% vs 0.1%; P <.001), stroke (3.2% vs 1.0%; P <.001), MI (2.7% vs 0.5%; P <.001), and CHF (1.7% vs 0.5%; P <.001), as well as 1-year death (5.1% vs 2.9%; P <.001) or stroke (4.2% vs 2.1%; P <.001). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer among patients who needed IVMED for postoperative hypertension (2.8 ± 4.7 days vs 1.7 ± 5.5 days; P <.001) and hypotension (2.8 ± 5.9 days vs 1.7 ± 5.5 days; P <.001). In multivariable analysis, IVMED for postoperative hypertension was associated with increased MI, stroke, or death (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.1; P <.001). Similarly, IVMED for postoperative hypotension was associated with increased MI, stroke, or death (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.1-5.0; P <.001), as well as increased 1-year stroke or death (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2; P =.003). Smoking, coronary artery disease, and clopidogrel (ROC, 0.59) were associated with postoperative hypertension requiring IVMED, whereas conventional endarterectomy and general anesthesia were associated with postoperative hypotension requiring IVMED (ROC, 0.58). The unitization of IVMED varied between 11% and 38% across VSGNE, and center effect did not affect outcomes. Conclusions Postoperative hypertension requiring IVMED after CEA is associated with increased perioperative mortality, stroke, and cardiac complications, whereas significant postoperative hypotension is associated with increased perioperative mortality, cardiac, or stroke complications, as well as increased 1-year death or stroke following CEA. The utilization of IVMED varied across centers and, as such, further investigation into this practice needs to occur in order to improve outcomes of these at-risk patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine