The mismeasure of man(agement) and its implications for leadership research

Philip M. Podsakoff, Scott B. MacKenzie, Nathan P. Podsakoff, Jeong Yeon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

299 Scopus citations


The purpose of the present review is to examine the potential problems caused by measurement model misspecification in the field of leadership. First, we discuss the conceptual differences between the four types of measurement models that have been used in leadership research and provide a set of criteria that could be used to decide upon the appropriate model. Following this, we examine the extent of measurement model misspecification by conducting a review of the leadership literature and applying these criteria. Next, we discuss the potential consequences of measurement model misspecification on conclusions made about the structural relationships between constructs. Finally, we discuss the implications of our study for leadership research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)615-656
Number of pages42
JournalLeadership Quarterly
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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