The gastrointestinal tract maintains energy and glucose homeostasis, in part through nutrient-sensing and subsequent signaling to the brain and other tissues. In this review, we highlight the role of small intestinal nutrient-sensing in metabolic homeostasis, and link high-fat feeding, obesity, and diabetes with perturbations in these gut-brain signaling pathways. We identify how lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, initiate gut peptide release from the enteroendocrine cells through small intestinal sensing pathways, and how these peptides regulate food intake, glucose tolerance, and hepatic glucose production. Lastly, we highlight how the gut microbiota impact small intestinal nutrient-sensing in normal physiology, and in disease, pharmacological and surgical settings. Emerging evidence indicates that the molecular mechanisms of small intestinal nutrient sensing in metabolic homeostasis have physiological and pathological impact as well as therapeutic potential in obesity and diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)