The JWST Early Release Science Program for Direct Observations of Exoplanetary Systems. IV. NIRISS Aperture Masking Interferometry Performance and Lessons Learned

Steph Sallum, Shrishmoy Ray, Jens Kammerer, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Rachel Cooper, Alexandra Z. Greebaum, Deepashri Thatte, Matthew De Furio, Samuel M. Factor, Michael R. Meyer, Jordan M. Stone, Aarynn Carter, Beth Biller, Sasha Hinkley, Andrew Skemer, Genaro Suárez, Jarron M. Leisenring, Marshall D. Perrin, Adam L. Kraus, Olivier AbsilWilliam O. Balmer, Sarah K. Betti, Anthony Boccaletti, Mariangela Bonavita, Mickael Bonnefoy, Mark Booth, Brendan P. Bowler, Zackery W. Briesemeister, Marta L. Bryan, Per Calissendorff, Faustine Cantalloube, Gael Chauvin, Christine H. Chen, Elodie Choquet, Valentin Christiaens, Gabriele Cugno, Thayne Currie, Camilla Danielski, Trent J. Dupuy, Jacqueline K. Faherty, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Jonathan J. Fortney, Kyle Franson, Julien H. Girard, Carol A. Grady, Eileen C. Gonzales, Thomas Henning, Dean C. Hines, Kielan K.W. Hoch, Callie E. Hood, Alex R. Howe, Markus Janson, Paul Kalas, Grant M. Kennedy, Matthew A. Kenworthy, Pierre Kervella, Daniel Kitzmann, Masayuki Kuzuhara, Anne Marie Lagrange, Pierre Olivier Lagage, Kellen Lawson, Cecilia Lazzoni, Ben W.P. Lew, Michael C. Liu, Pengyu Liu, Jorge Llop-Sayson, James P. Lloyd, Anna Lueber, Bruce MacIntosh, Elena Manjavacas, Sebastian Marino, Mark S. Marley, Christian Marois, Raquel A. Martinez, Brenda C. Matthews, Elisabeth C. Matthews, Dimitri Mawet, Johan Mazoyer, Michael W. McElwain, Stanimir Metchev, Brittany E. Miles, Maxwell A. Millar-Blanchaer, Paul Molliere, Sarah E. Moran, Caroline V. Morley, Sagnick Mukherjee, Paulina Palma-Bifani, Eric Pantin, Polychronis Patapis, Simon Petrus, Laurent Pueyo, Sascha P. Quanz, Andreas Quirrenbach, Isabel Rebollido, Jea Adams Redai, Bin B. Ren, Emily Rickman, Matthias Samland, B. A. Sargent, Joshua E. Schlieder, Glenn Schneider, Karl R. Stapelfeldt, Ben J. Sutlieff, Motohide Tamura, Xianyu Tan, Christopher A. Theissen, Taichi Uyama, Arthur Vigan, Malavika Vasist, Johanna M. Vos, Kevin Wagner, Jason J. Wang, Kimberly Ward-Duong, Niall Whiteford, Schuyler G. Wolff, Kadin Worthen, Mark C. Wyatt, Marie Ygouf, Xi Zhang, Keming Zhang, Zhoujian Zhang, Yifan Zhou, Alice Zurlo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

We present a performance analysis for the aperture masking interferometry (AMI) mode on board the James Webb Space Telescope Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST/NIRISS). Thanks to self-calibrating observables, AMI accesses inner working angles down to and even within the classical diffraction limit. The scientific potential of this mode has recently been demonstrated by the Early Release Science (ERS) 1386 program with a deep search for close-in companions in the HIP 65426 exoplanetary system. As part of ERS 1386, we use the same data set to explore the random, static, and calibration errors of NIRISS AMI observables. We compare the observed noise properties and achievable contrast to theoretical predictions. We explore possible sources of calibration errors and show that differences in charge migration between the observations of HIP 65426 and point-spread function calibration stars can account for the achieved contrast curves. Lastly, we use self-calibration tests to demonstrate that with adequate calibration NIRISS F380M AMI can reach contrast levels of ~9-10 mag at ≥λ/D. These tests lead us to observation planning recommendations and strongly motivate future studies aimed at producing sophisticated calibration strategies taking these systematic effects into account. This will unlock the unprecedented capabilities of JWST/NIRISS AMI, with sensitivity to significantly colder, lower-mass exoplanets than lower-contrast ground-based AMI setups, at orbital separations inaccessible to JWST coronagraphy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL2
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume963
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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