The Importance of Facial Gender Confirmation Surgery

Jens Urs Berli, Eric Plemons

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


To distinguish the phenotypic sex of a newborn, observers typically inspect the primary external genitalia and pronounce the child female, male, or intersex. Throughout maturation, and most notably during exposure to increased gonadal hormones during puberty, secondary sex characteristics develop (Table 10.1). These include the development of patterned body hair, the presence or absence of breasts, change in muscle mass, and differentiation of the skeleton, including the face and skull. Among all the secondary sex characteristics, facial features are the most visible in social life and have a significant impact on a person’s vision of themselves in the mirror. They are also the most difficult to alter. This chapter outlines the importance and implications of facial gender markers from a social, historical, and patient perspective.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGender Confirmation Surgery
Subtitle of host publicationPrinciples and Techniques for an Emerging Field
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9783030290931
ISBN (Print)9783030290924
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Facial feminization surgery
  • Facial gender confirmation surgery
  • Gender-affirming surgery
  • Trans female
  • Trans woman
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'The Importance of Facial Gender Confirmation Surgery'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this