The impact of primary relationships and early experiences in toddlerhood: 12 to 18 months

Ann M Mastergeorge, Katherine W. Paschall

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The importance of responsive early relationships and consistent and positive early learning opportunities is critical for the developmental period of toddlerhood. This chapter will discuss empirical research as it is applied to the field of early development and will further explicate both positive and adverse experiences that impact developmental trajectories. Understanding domains of early social-emotional development in the context of caregiving relationships and child care will be highlighted, as well as the influences of individuals and environments on children’s developmental outcomes. The impact of brain development, developmental hazards, and factors that can buffer early developmental pathways will be reviewed within a frame of prevention and early intervention, as well as the promotion of rich, high-quality experiences required for well-being of young children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBuilding Early Social and Emotional Relationships with Infants and Toddlers
Subtitle of host publicationIntegrating Research and Practice
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9783030031107
ISBN (Print)9783030031091
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Adverse early experiences
  • Attachment
  • Brain development
  • Caregiving environments
  • Child care practices
  • Early experiences
  • Family relationships
  • Infant-toddler assessments
  • Toddlerhood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology
  • General Medicine
  • General Social Sciences


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