The microstructures and the phase transformation temperatures of sputtered titanium-nickel (TiNi) thin films, both free-standing and attached on different underlying multi-layer substrates, have been studied. Differences in the microstructures, such as the lattice constants and relative concentrations of TiNi, Ti 2Ni and TiNi 3 phases, have been observed among the free-standing and the attached films, among the films attached on different underlying multi-layers and among the films with different relative orders of ageing and release. Not surprisingly, the corresponding phase transformation temperatures are also different. It is proposed that both process- and substrate-induced stresses affect the microstructures, hence the phase transformation characteristics, of the resulting shape-memory thin films.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering