The effect of kalman-weighted averaging and artifact rejection on residual noise during auditory brainstem response testing

Linda W. Norrix, Julie Thein, David Velenovsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: Low residual noise (RN) levels are critically important when obtaining electrophysiological recordings of threshold auditory brainstem responses. In this study, we examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Kalmanweighted averaging (KWA) implemented on the Vivosonic Integrity System and artifact rejection (AR) implemented on the Intelligent Hearing Systems SmartEP system for obtaining low RN levels. Method: Sixteen adults participated. Electrophysiological measures were obtained using simultaneous recordings by the Vivosonic and Intelligent Hearing Systems for subjects in 2 relaxed conditions and 4 active motor conditions. Three averaging times were used for the relaxed states (1, 1.5, and 3 min) and for the active states (1.5, 3, and 6 min). Repeatedmeasures analyses of variance were used to examine RN levels as a function of noise reduction strategy (i.e., KWA, AR) and averaging time. Results: Lower RN levels were obtained using KWA than AR in both the relaxed and active motor states. Thus, KWA was more effective than was AR under the conditions examined in this study. Using KWA, approximately 3 min of averaging was needed in the relaxed condition to obtain an average RN level of 0.025 µV. In contrast, in the active motor conditions, approximately 6 min of averaging was required using KWA. Mean RN levels of 0.025 µV were not attained using AR. Conclusions: When patients are not physiologically quiet, low RN levels are more likely to be obtained and more efficiently obtained using KWA than AR. However, even when using KWA, in active motor states, 6 min of averaging or more may be required to obtain threshold responses. Averaging time needed and whether a low RN level can be attained will depend on the level of motor activity exhibited by the patient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-124
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican journal of audiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Speech and Hearing


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