The effect of elevated CO2 on diel leaf growth cycle, leaf carbohydrate content and canopy growth performance of Populus deltoides

Achim Walter, Maja M. Christ, Greg A. Barron-Gafford, Katie A. Grieve, Ramesh Murthy, Uwe Rascher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Image sequence processing methods were applied to study the effect of elevated CO2 on the diel leaf growth cycle for the first time in a dicot plant. Growing leaves of Populus deltoides, in stands maintained under ambient and elevated CO2 for up to 4 years, showed a high degree of heterogeneity and pronounced diel variations of their relative growth rate (RGR) with maxima at dusk. At the beginning of the season, leaf growth did not differ between treatments. At the end of the season, final individual leaf area and total leaf biomass of the canopy was increased in elevated CO2. Increased final leaf area at elevated CO2 was achieved via a prolonged phase of leaf expansion activity and not via larger leaf size upon emergence. The fraction of leaves growing at 30-40% day-1 was increased by a factor of two in the elevated CO2 treatment. A transient minimum of leaf expansion developed during the late afternoon in leaves grown under elevated CO2 as the growing season progressed. During this minimum, leaves grown under elevated CO2 decreased their RGR to 50% of the ambient value. The transient growth minimum in the afternoon was correlated with a transient depletion of glucose (less than 50%) in the growing leaf in elevated CO2, suggesting diversion of glucose to starch or other carbohydrates, making this substrate temporarily unavailable for growth. Increased leaf growth was observed at the end of the night in elevated CO2. Net CO2 exchange and starch concentration of growing leaves was higher in elevated CO2. The extent to which the transient reduction in diel leaf growth might dampen the overall growth response of these trees to elevated CO2 is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1207-1219
Number of pages13
JournalGlobal change biology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2005


  • Biomass
  • Biosphere 2 Laboratory
  • Carbohydrates
  • Elevated CO
  • Gas exchange
  • Image processing
  • Leaf growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Ecology
  • General Environmental Science


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