The effect of dietary soy isoflavones before and after ovariectomy on hippocampal protein markers of mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant activity in female monkeys

Jamaica R. Rettberg, Ryan T. Hamilton, Zisu Mao, Jimmy To, Liqin Zhao, Susan E. Appt, Thomas C. Register, Jay R. Kaplan, Roberta Diaz Brinton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Estrogen therapy can promote cognitive function if initiated within a 'critical window' during the menopausal transition. However, in the absence of a progestogen, estrogens increase endometrial cancer risk which has spurred research into developing estrogenic alternatives that have the beneficial effects of estrogen but which are clinically safer. Soy protein is rich in isoflavones, which are a class of potential estrogenic alternatives. We sought to determine the effects of two diets, one with casein-lactalbumin as the main protein source and the other with soy protein containing isoflavones, on protein markers of hippocampal bioenergetic capacity in adult female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Further, we assessed the effects of dietary soy isoflavones before or after ovariectomy. Animals receiving soy diet premenopausally then casein/lactalbumin post-ovariectomy had higher relative hippocampal content of glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit e1α. Post-ovariectomy consumption of soy was associated with higher succinate dehydrogenase α levels and lower levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, both proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, significantly decreased expression of the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin-V, and a non-significant trend towards decreased manganese superoxide dismutase expression. None of the diet paradigms significantly affected expression levels of oxidative phosphorylation enzyme complexes, or of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins. Together, these data suggest that long-term soy diet produces minimal effects on hippocampal expression of proteins involved in bioenergetics, but that switching between a diet containing primarily animal protein and one containing soy isoflavones before and after menopause may result in complex effects on brain chemistry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-33
Number of pages11
JournalBrain Research
Volume1379
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 16 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Hippocampus
  • Menopause
  • Mitochondria
  • Phytoestrogens
  • Soy isoflavone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology

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