The diabetes empowerment scale: A measure of psychosocial self-efficacy

Robert M. Anderson, Martha M. Funnell, James T. Fitzgerald, David G. Marrero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

392 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to assess the validity, reliability, and utility of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), which is a measure of diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In this study (n = 375), the psychometric properties of the DES were calculated. To establish validity, DES subscales were compared with 2 previously validated subscales of the Diabetes Care Profile (DCP). Factor and item analyses were conducted to develop subscales that were coherent, meaningful, and had an acceptable coefficient α. RESULTS - The psychometric analyses resulted in a 28-item DES (α = 0.96) with 3 subscales: Managing the Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes (α = 0.93), Assessing Dissatisfaction and Readiness To Change (α = 0.81), and Setting and Achieving Diabetes Goals (α = 0.91). Consistent correlations in the expected direction between DES subscales and DCP subscales provided evidence of concurrent validity. CONCLUSIONS - This study provides preliminary evidence that the DES is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. The DES should be a useful outcome measure for various educational and psychosocial interventions related to diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)739-743
Number of pages5
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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