The decoy effect as a covert influence tactic

Jerel E. Slaughter, Edgar E. Kausel, Miguel A. Quiñones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The purpose of this research was to determine whether individuals could use the decoy effect to influence others' choices. In study 1, undergraduates (n=50) and executive master's of business administration (EMBA) students (n=24) read an employee selection scenario in which they were randomly assigned to prefer one of two candidates that were equal in overall attractiveness, but that had different strengths and weaknesses. They were then asked to choose one of three inferior candidates to add to the choice set that would make their preferred candidate more likely to be chosen by other decision makers. The "correct" inferior candidate was asymmetrically dominated-dominated by one of the two existing candidates, but not the other. Participants chose the "correct" decoy candidate at better than chance levels. In study 2, undergraduates and EMBA students (total n=66) completed a set of four decision tasks, in which they were asked to choose from potential decoy alternatives that would highlight their preferred job candidate or the product they preferred to sell to a customer. Participants again chose the correct option at better than chance levels. When participants provided free-response reasons for their choices, these responses indicated a fairly strong recognition of the influential nature of creating a dominating relationship. Implications for understanding this effect and how it may be used by hiring managers, sales personnel, and others who attempt to influence others people's decisions at work, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-266
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Behavioral Decision Making
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2011


  • Applied decision making influence tactics
  • Consumer choice
  • Decoy effect
  • Employee selection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Decision Sciences(all)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Strategy and Management


Dive into the research topics of 'The decoy effect as a covert influence tactic'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this