The costs and benefits of refuge requirements: The case of Bt cotton

George B. Frisvold, Jeanne M. Reeves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Refuge requirements have been the primary regulatory tool to delay pest resistance to Bt crops. This paper presents a simple method to estimate the annual cost of refuges to producers, applying it to Bt cotton. It also examines broader welfare impacts, estimating how Bt cotton acreage restrictions affect producer surplus, consumer surplus, seed supplier profits, and commodity program outlays. The implications of grower adoption behavior - partial adoption, aggregate adoption, and refuge choice - for regulatory costs are examined. Empirical examples illustrate how providing multiple refuge options significantly reduces regulatory costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-97
Number of pages11
JournalEcological Economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 15 2008


  • Bt cotton
  • Refuges
  • Resistance management
  • Technology adoption

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Economics and Econometrics


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