The CHART system: A high-performance, fair transport architecture based on explicit-rate signaling

Jack Brassil, Rick McGeer, Raj Rajagopalan, Puneet Sharma, Praveen Yalagandula, Sujata Banerjee, David P. Reed, Sung Ju Lee, Andy Bavier, Larry Peterson, Stephen Schwab, Larry Roberts, Alex Henderson, Bob Khorram, Shidong Zhang, Soonyong Sohn, Brian Mark, Christian Heiter, John Spies, Nicki Watts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


TCP/IP is known to have poor performance under conditions of moderate to high packet loss (5%-20%) and end-to-end latency (20-200 ms). The CHART system, under development by HP and its partners under contract to the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, is a careful re-engineering of Internet Layer 3 and Layer 4 protocols to improve TCP/IP performance in these cases. The CHART system has just completed the second phase of a three-phase, 42-month development cycle. The goal for the 42-month program was a 10x improvement in the performance of TCP/IP under conditions of loss and delay. In independent tests for DARPA at Science Applications In-ternational Corporation, the CHART System demonstrated a 20x performance improvement over TCP/IP, exceeding the goals for the program by a factor of two. Fairness to legacy TCP and UDP ows was further demonstrated in DARPA testing. We describe the CHART System as a set of five interacting services and protocol improvements which act together to make TCP/IP robust under conditions of loss and latency, and we describe and detail the test regime and performance results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26-35
Number of pages10
JournalOperating Systems Review (ACM)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Explicit-rate
  • Flow-based routing
  • Overlay
  • Quality of service
  • Virtualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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