The c-MYC NHE III1: Function and regulation

Verónica Gonzalez, Laurence H. Hurley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

125 Scopus citations


c-MYC is an important regulator of a wide array of cellular processes necessary for normal cell growth and differentiation, and its dysregulation is one of the hallmarks of many cancers. Consequently, understanding c-MYC transcriptional activation is critical for understanding developmental and cancer biology, as well as for the development of new anticancer drugs. The nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to be particularly important in regulating c-MYC expression. Specifically, the formation of a G-quadruplex structure appears to promote repression of c-MYC transcription. This review focuses on what is known about the formation of a G-quadruplex in the NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter, as well as on those factors that are known to modulate its formation. Last, we discuss the development of small molecules that stabilize or induce the formation of G-quadruplex structures and could potentially be used as anticancer agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-129
Number of pages19
JournalAnnual review of pharmacology and toxicology
StatePublished - Feb 10 2010


  • CNBP
  • G-quadruplex
  • HnRNP K
  • NM23-H2
  • Nucleolin
  • Superhelicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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