We sort 4683 molecular clouds between 10° < ℓ < 65° from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey based on observational diagnostics of star formation activity: compact 70 μm sources, mid-IR color-selected YSOs, H2O and CH3OH masers, and UCH ii regions. We also present a combined NH3-derived gas kinetic temperature and H2O maser catalog for 1788 clumps from our own GBT 100 m observations and from the literature. We identify a subsample of 2223 (47.5%) starless clump candidates (SCCs), the largest and most robust sample identified from a blind survey to date. Distributions of flux density, flux concentration, solid angle, kinetic temperature, column density, radius, and mass show strong (>1 dex) progressions when sorted by star formation indicator. The median SCC is marginally subvirial (α ∼ 0.7) with >75% of clumps with known distance being gravitationally bound (α < 2). These samples show a statistically significant increase in the median clump mass of ΔM ∼ 170-370 M o from the starless candidates to clumps associated with protostars. This trend could be due to (i) mass growth of the clumps at M o Myr-1 for an average freefall 0.8 Myr timescale, (ii) a systematic factor of two increase in dust opacity from starless to protostellar phases, and/or (iii) a variation in the ratio of starless to protostellar clump lifetime that scales as ∼M -0.4. By comparing to the observed number of CH3OH maser containing clumps, we estimate the phase lifetime of massive (M > 103 M o) starless clumps to be 0.37 ± 0.08 Myr (M/103 M o)-1; the majority (M < 450 M o) have phase lifetimes longer than their average freefall time.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - May 10 2016|
- ISM: clouds
- ISM: molecules
- stars: formation
- submillimeter: ISM
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science
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BGPS. XIV. Molecular cloud clumps GBT obs.
Svoboda, B. E. (Creator), Shirley, Y. L. (Creator), Battersby, C. (Creator), Rosolowsky, E. W. (Creator), Ginsburg, A. G. (Creator), Ellsworth-Bowers, T. P. (Creator), Pestalozzi, M. R. (Creator), Dunham, M. K. (Creator), Evans Ii, N. J. (Contributor), Bally, J. (Creator) & Glenn, J. (Creator), Centre de Donnees Strasbourg (CDS), 2016
DOI: 10.26093/cds/vizier.18220059, https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/ApJ/822/59