The association of non-cardiac ECMO with influenza incidence: A time series analysis

Michael Insel, Bhupinder Natt, Jarrod Mosier, Joshua Malo, Christian Bime

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic saw a rise in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a supportive therapy for refractory ARDS. We sought to determine whether ECMO utilization follows a seasonal pattern that matches the influenza season, and whether it can further be explained by the incidence of each influenza subtype. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal analysis of non-cardiac and cardiac-associated ECMO cases from the National In-patient Sample from 2005 to 2014, using overdispersed Poisson regression to evaluate associations with influenza incidence categorized by influenza-like illness and total positive influenza tests divided by subtype from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: Non-cardiac ECMO use was positively associated with influenza-like illness incidence in the current month (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.15, P < .001) and with influenza-like illness in the previous month (IRR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05–1.14, P < .001). The 2009 H1N1 subtype had the strongest association with non-cardiac ECMO (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09–1.31, P < .001). Cardiac ECMO was also positively associated with the incidence of influenza-like illness (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.09, P = .02). CONCLUSION: Non-cardiac and cardiac ECMO use in the United States were significantly associated with influenza incidence. The influenza A, H1N1 2009, subtype had the strongest association.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-284
Number of pages6
JournalRespiratory care
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Adults
  • ECMO
  • Epidemiology
  • H1N1 virus
  • Influenza virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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