The Arizona Radio Observatory 1 mm Spectral Survey of the Hypergiant Star NML Cygni (215-285 GHz)

A. P. Singh, J. L. Edwards, L. M. Ziurys

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3 Scopus citations


A sensitive (1σ rms ≤ 3 mK; 2 MHz resolution) 1 mm spectral survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of the envelope of the oxygen-rich supergiant star NML Cygni (NML Cyg) has been conducted using the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. These data represent the first spectral line survey of NML Cyg and are complementary to a previous 1 mm survey of the envelope of a similar hypergiant, VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). The complete NML Cyg data set is presented here. In the survey, 104 emission lines were observed, arising from 17 different molecules and 4 unidentified features. Many of the observed features have complex line profiles, arising from asymmetric outflows characteristic of hypergiant stars. While most of the lines in the survey arise from SiO, SO, SO2, and SiS, CO had the strongest emission. Five other C-bearing species are identified in the survey (HCN, CN, HCO+, CS, and HNC), demonstrating an active carbon chemistry despite the O-rich environment. Moreover, NS was observed, but not NO, although favorable transitions of both molecules lie in the surveyed region. Sulfur chemistry appears to be prominent in NML Cyg and plays an important role in the collimated outflows. The refractory species observed, NaCl and AlO, have narrow emission lines, indicating that these molecules do not reach the terminal expansion velocity. NaCl and AlO likely condense into dust grains at r < 50 R *. From NaCl, the chlorine isotope ratio was determined to be 35Cl/37Cl = 3.85 ± 0.30.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number230
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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