The acceleration of pickup ions

J. R. Jokipii, J. Giacalone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The well-established association of pickup ions with anomalous cosmic rays shows that acceleration of pickup ions to energies above 1 GeV occurs. At present, diffusive shock acceleration of the pickup ions at the termination shock of the solar wind seems to be the best candidate for acceleration to the high energies of anomalous cosmic rays, accounting well for many of their observed properties. However, it is shown that acceleration of pickup ions from their initial energies by this process appears to be difficult at very strong, nearly perpendicular shocks such as the termination shock. This "injection" problem remains without a clear solution. A number of alternatives have been proposed for the initial acceleration of pickup ions to the point where diffusive acceleration at the termination shock can take over, but none of these processes has yet emerged as a clear favorite.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-148
Number of pages12
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 1996


  • Acceleration
  • Cosmic rays
  • Solar wind

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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