The 2014 alma long baseline campaign: First results from high angular resolution observations toward the hl tau region

C. L. Brogan, L. M. Pérez, T. R. Hunter, W. R.F. Dent, A. S. Hales, R. E. Hills, S. Corder, E. B. Fomalont, C. Vlahakis, Y. Asaki, D. Barkats, A. Hirota, J. A. Hodge, C. M.V. Impellizzeri, R. Kneissl, E. Liuzzo, R. Lucas, N. Marcelino, S. Matsushita, K. NakanishiN. Phillips, A. M.S. Richards, I. Toledo, R. Aladro, D. Broguiere, J. R. Cortes, P. C. Cortes, D. Espada, F. Galarza, D. Garcia-Appadoo, L. Guzman-Ramirez, E. M. Humphreys, T. Jung, S. Kameno, R. A. Laing, S. Leon, G. Marconi, A. Mignano, B. Nikolic, L. A. Nyman, M. Radiszcz, A. Remijan, J. A. Rodón, T. Sawada, S. Takahashi, R. P.J. Tilanus, B. Vila Vilaro, L. C. Watson, T. Wiklind, E. Akiyama, E. Chapillon, I. De Gregorio-Monsalvo, J. Di Francesco, F. Gueth, A. Kawamura, C. F. Lee, Q. Nguyen Luong, J. Mangum, V. Pietu, P. Sanhueza, K. Saigo, S. Takakuwa, C. Ubach, T. Van Kempen, A. Wootten, A. Castro-Carrizo, H. Francke, J. Gallardo, J. Garcia, S. Gonzalez, T. Hill, T. Kaminski, Y. Kurono, H. Y. Liu, C. Lopez, F. Morales, K. Plarre, G. Schieven, L. Testi, L. Videla, E. Villard, P. Andreani, J. E. Hibbard, K. Tatematsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

416 Scopus citations

Abstract

We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.″ 075 (10 AU) to 0.″ 025 (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analog HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination () and position angle We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index (), which ranges from in the optically thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3-3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, and we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for subsequent dark rings, consistent with some degree of grain growth and evolution. Additional clues that the rings arise from planet formation include an increase in their central offsets with radius and the presence of numerous orbital resonances. At a resolution of 35 AU, we resolve the molecular component of the disk in HCO+ (1-0) which exhibits a pattern over LSR velocities from 2-12 km s-1 consistent with Keplerian motion around a ∼1.3 star, although complicated by absorption at low blueshifted velocities. We also serendipitously detect and resolve the nearby protostars XZ Tau (A/B) and LkH358 at 2.9 mm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL3
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume808
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 20 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • LkHα358)
  • Protoplanetary disks
  • Stars: formation
  • Stars: individual (HL Tau
  • Submillimeter: planetary systems
  • Techniques: interferometric
  • XZ Tau

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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