The β2-adrenergic receptor agonist formoterol restores mitochondrial homeostasis in glucose-induced renal proximal tubule injury through separate integrated pathways

Kristan H. Cleveland, Rick G. Schnellmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunction drives the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Previously, we discovered that the β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist formoterol regulates mitochondrial dynamics in the hyperglycemic renal proximal tubule. The goal of this study was to identify signaling mechanisms through which formoterol restores the mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins Drp1 and Mfn1. Using primary renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC), the effect of chronic high glucose on RhoA/ROCK1/Drp1 and Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2/Mfn1 signaling was determined. In glucose-treated RPTC, RhoA became hyperactive, leading to ROCK1-induced activation of Drp1. Treatment with formoterol and/or pharmacological inhibitors targeting RhoA, ROCK1 and Drp1 blocked RhoA and Drp1 hyperactivity. Inhibiting this pathway also restored maximal mitochondrial respiration. By preventing Gβγ signaling with gallein, we determined that formoterol signals through the Gβγ subunit of the β2-AR to restore RhoA and Drp1. Furthermore, formoterol restored this pathway by blocking binding of RhoA with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor p114RhoGEF. Formoterol also restored the mitochondrial fusion protein Mfn1 through a second Gβγ-dependent mechanism composed of Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2/Mfn1. Glucose-treated RPTC exhibited decreased Mfn1 activity, which was restored with formoterol. Pharmacological inhibition of Gβγ, Raf and MEK1/2 also restored Mfn1 activity. We demonstrate that glucose promotes the interaction between RhoA and p114RhoGEF, leading to increased RhoA and ROCK1-mediated activation of Drp1, and decreases Mfn1 activity through Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2. Formoterol restores these pathways and mitochondrial function in response to elevated glucose by activating separate yet integrative pathways that promote mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased fission and increased fusion in RPTC, further supporting its potential as a therapeutic for DKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115436
JournalBiochemical Pharmacology
Volume209
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Diabetic kidney disease (DKD)
  • Formoterol
  • Mitochondria
  • Renal proximal tubule
  • β-adrenergic receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology

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