TGF-β1-enhanced TCP-coated sensate scaffolds can detect bone bonding

J. A. Szivek, D. S. Margolis, B. K. Garrison, E. Nelson, R. K. Vaidyanathan, D. W. DeYoung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Porous polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) scaffold systems were tested as orthopedic implants to determine whether these scaffolds could be used to detect strain transfer following bone growth into the scaffold. Three types of scaffold systems were tested: porous PBT scaffolds, porous PBT scaffolds with a thin β-tricalcium phosphate coating (LC-PBT), and porous PBT scaffolds with the TCP coating vacuum packed into the scaffold pores (VI-PBT). In addition, the effect of applying TGF-β1 to scaffolds as an enhancement was examined. The scaffolds were placed onto the femora of rats and left in vivo for 4 months. The amount of bone ingrowth and the strain transfer through various scaffolds was evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, histology, histomorphometry, and cantilever bend testing. The VI-PBT scaffold showed the highest and most consistent degree of mechanical interaction between bone and scaffold, providing strain transfers of 68.5% (±20.6) and 79.2% (±8.7) of control scaffolds in tension and compression, respectively. The strain transfer through the VI-PBT scaffold decreased to 29.1% (±24.3) and 30.4% (±25.8) in tension and compression when used with TGF-β1. TGF-β1 enhancement increased the strain transfer through LC-PBT scaffolds in compression from 9.4% (±8.7) to 49.7% (±31.0). The significant changes in mechanical strain transfer through LC-PBT and VI-PBT scaffolds correlated with changes in bone ingrowth fraction, which was increased by 39.6% in LC-PBT scaffolds and was decreased 21.3% in VI-PBT scaffolds after TGF-β1 enhancement. Overall, the results indicate that strain transfer through TCP-coated PBT scaffolds correlate with bone ingrowth after implantation, making these instrumented scaffolds useful for monitoring bone growth by monitoring strain transfer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-53
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2005


  • Histomorphometry
  • Mechanical testing
  • Polybutylene terephthalate
  • TGF-β1
  • Tricalcium phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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