Temporal Framing and Consideration of Future Consequences: Effects on Smokers’ and At-Risk Nonsmokers’ Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings

Xiaoquan Zhao, Xiaoli Nan, Irina Alexandra Iles, Bo Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

This research examines the influence of temporal framing (long-term vs. short-term) and individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) on the effectiveness of cigarette health warnings among smokers and at-risk nonsmokers in a college population. An online experiment (N = 395) revealed a three-way interaction among temporal framing, CFC, and smoking status. The results among at-risk nonsmokers supported the temporal fit hypothesis—those high in CFC responded more favorably to long-term framing, whereas those low in CFC responded more positively to short-term framing. The findings among smokers revealed a different pattern in which short-term framing was more effective among high-CFC smokers, whereas among low-CFC smokers the framing effect was not distinct. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-185
Number of pages11
JournalHealth Communication
Volume30
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Communication

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