Temporal and Real-Time Databases: A Survey

Gultekin Azsoyoglu, Richard T. Snodgrass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

316 Scopus citations


A temporal database contains time-varying data. In a real-time database transactions have deadlines or timing constraints. In this paper we review the substantial research in these two previously separate areas. First we characterize the time domain; then we investigate temporal and real-time data models. We evaluate temporal and real-time query languages along several dimensions. We examine temporal and real-time DBMS implementation. Finally, we summarize major research accomplishments to date and list several unanswered research questions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)513-532
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1995


  • Object-oriented databases
  • query languages
  • relational databases
  • temporal data models
  • time-constrained databases
  • transaction time
  • user-defined time
  • valid time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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