Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement

Bradley P. Weegman, Thomas M. Suszynski, William E. Scott, Joana Ferrer Fábrega, Efstathios S. Avgoustiniatos, Takayuki Anazawa, Timothy D. O'Brien, Michael D. Rizzari, Theodore Karatzas, Tun Jie, David E.R. Sutherland, Bernhard J. Hering, Klearchos K. Papas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)574-581
Number of pages8
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014


  • cold preservation
  • islet xenotransplantation
  • organ cooling
  • pancreas procurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Transplantation


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