Temperament Styles of Zimbabwe and U.S. Children

Thomas Oakland, Elias Mpofu, Michael Sulkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Temperament styles of 600 Zimbabwe children are described and compared to those of 3,200 U.S. children. Gender and age differences are described for children in Zimbabwe and compared to U.S. children. Results indicate that Zimbabwe children generally prefer extroverted to introverted styles, practical to imaginative styles, feeling to thinking styles, and organized to flexible styles. Gender differences were found on one style: in contrast to males, females are more likely to prefer extroverted styles. Age differences are seen on extroversion-introversion, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible styles. In contrast to U.S. children, those in Zimbabwe tend to express higher preferences for practical, feeling, and organized styles. Implications for practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-153
Number of pages15
JournalCanadian Journal of School Psychology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Dec 2006


  • Zimbabwe
  • children
  • cross-cultural
  • temperament

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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