Humans have coevolved with a complex community of bacterial species also referred to as the microbiome, which reciprocally provides critical contributions to human metabolism and immune system development. Gut microbiome composition differs significantly between individuals depending on host genetics, diet, and environmental factors. A dysregulation of the symbiotic nature of the intestinal host-microbial relationship and an aberrant and persistent immune response are the fundamental processes involved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Considering the essential role of T cells in IBD and the contributing role of the microbiome in shaping the immune response during the pathogenesis of IBD, this review focuses on the complex relationship, interplay, and communication between the gut microbiome and T cells, including their differentiation into different subsets of effector or regulatory cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)