Synergistic inhibitory effects of clopidogrel and rivaroxaban on platelet function and platelet-dependent thrombin generation in cats

Sara T. Lo, Ronald H.L. Li, Catherine J. Georges, Nghi Nguyen, Cheyenne K. Chen, Claire Stuhlmann, Maureen Sigmund Oldach, Victor Noel Rivas, Samantha Fousse, Samantha P. Harris, Joshua A. Stern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Dual antithrombotic treatment (DAT) with clopidogrel and rivaroxaban sometimes is prescribed to cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at risk of thromboembolism. To date, no studies have evaluated their combined effects on platelet function. Objectives/Hypothesis: Evaluate the safety of DAT in healthy cats and compare, ex vivo, platelet-dependent thrombin generation and agonist-induced platelet activation and aggregation in cats treated with clopidogrel, rivaroxaban, or DAT. We hypothesized that DAT would safely modulate agonist-induced platelet activation and aggregation more effectively than single agent treatment. Animals: Nine apparently healthy 1-year-old cats selected from a research colony. Methods: Unblinded, nonrandomized ex vivo cross-over study. All cats received 7 days of rivaroxaban (0.6 ± 0.1 mg/kg PO), clopidogrel (4.7 ± 0.8 mg/kg PO), or DAT with defined washout periods between treatments. Before and after each treatment, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and thrombin-induced platelet P-selectin expression was evaluated using flow cytometry to assess platelet activation. Platelet-dependent thrombin generation was measured by fluorescence assay. Platelet aggregation was assessed using whole blood impedance platelet aggregometry. Results: No cats exhibited adverse effects. Of the 3 treatments, only DAT significantly decreased the number of activated platelets (P =.002), modulated platelet activation in response to thrombin (P =.01), dampened thrombin generation potential (P =.01), and delayed maximum reaction velocity (P =.004) in thrombin generation. Like clopidogrel, DAT inhibited ADP-mediated platelet aggregation. However, rivaroxaban alone resulted in increased aggregation and activation in response to ADP. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Treatment combining clopidogrel and rivaroxaban (DAT) safely decreases platelet activation, platelet response to agonists, and thrombin generation in feline platelets more effectively than monotherapy with either clopidogrel or rivaroxaban.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1390-1400
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiology
  • cardiovascular
  • clopidogrel resistance
  • factor Xa inhibitor
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • saddle thrombus
  • thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary


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