Sustainability provisions in the bus-scheduling problem

Jing Quan Li, K. Larry Head

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


The traditional vehicle scheduling problem attempts to minimize capital and operating costs. However, the carbon footprint and toxic air pollutants have become an increasingly important consideration. This paper studies the bus-scheduling problem and evaluates new types of buses that use alternative energy sources to reduce emissions, including some toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide. A time-space network based approach is applied to formulate the problem to reduce the numbers of arcs in the underlying network; CPLEX is used to solve the problem. The results show that the bus-scheduling model can significantly reduce the bus emissions - hence reducing the carbon footprint of the transit operation - while only slightly increasing operating costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-60
Number of pages11
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


  • Alternative fuels
  • Carbon footprint
  • Sustainable transportation
  • Vehicle emissions
  • Vehicle scheduling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Environmental Science(all)


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