Survival of the enteric adenoviruses 40 and 41 in tap, sea, and waste water

Carlos E. Enriquez, Christon J. Hurst, Charles P. Gerba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

163 Scopus citations


The enteric adenoviruses types 40 (Ead 40) and 41 (Ead 41) have emerged as a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in children, second in importance only to the rotaviruses. The role of the enteric adenoviruses as waterborne pathogens has not been evaluated. This study compared the survival of these agents with poliovirus type 1 (polio 1) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in tap water at 4°C, and at room temperature, with polio 1 in primary and secondary wastewater at 4, and 15°C, and in sea water at 15°C. Assays were conducted at regular intervals by the TCID50 method in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The survival of Ead 40 and Ead 41 in primary and secondary wastewater was slightly greater than that of polio 1. However, in tap, and sea water, the enteric adenoviruses were substantially more stable than either polio 1 or HAV. These results suggest that the enteric adenoviruses may survive for prolonged periods in water, representing a potential route of transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2548-2553
Number of pages6
JournalWater research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1995


  • adenovirus
  • hepatitis A
  • poliovirus
  • seawater
  • survival
  • tapwater
  • wastewater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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