Surgical management of moyamoya disease. A review

Ali A. Baaj, Siviero Agazzi, Zafar A. Sayed, Maria Toledo, Robert F. Spetzler, Harry van Loveren

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive, occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid arteries associated with secondary stenosis of the circle of Willis. Symptoms include ischemic infarcts in children and hemorrhages in adults. Bypass of the stenotic vessel(s) is the primary surgical treatment modality for MMD. Superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery bypass is the most common direct bypass method. Indirect techniques rely on the approximation of vascularized tissue to the cerebral cortex to promote neoangiogenesis. This tissue may be in the form of muscle, pericranium, dura, or even omentum. This review highlights the surgical options available for the treatment of MMD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalNeurosurgical focus
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Bypass
  • Encephaloduroarteriomyosyngiosis
  • Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis
  • Encephalomyosynangiosis
  • Moyamoya disease
  • Omental transplant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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