Surface enhancements accelerate bone bonding to CPC-coated strain gauges

Nicholas M. Cordaro, John A. Szivek, Don W. DeYoung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Calcium phosphate ceramic (CPC)-coated strain gauges have been used for in vivo bone strain measurements for up to 18 weeks, but they require 6 to 9 weeks for sufficient bonding. Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), PepTite™ (a proprietary ligand), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD), transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1), and an endothelial cell layer with and without TGF-β1 were used as surface enhancements to accelerate bone-to-CPC bonding. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with unenhanced and enhanced CPC-coated gauges. Animals were allowed normal activity for 3 weeks and then calcein labeled. Femurs were explanted following euthanasia. A gauge was attached with cyanoacrylate to the opposite femur in the same position as the CPC-coated gauge. Bones were cantilever-loaded to assess strain transfer. They were sectioned and stained with mineralized bone stain (MIBS) and examined with transmitted and ultraviolet light. Mechanical testing indicated increased sensing accuracy for TGF-β1 and OP-1 enhancements to 105 ± 14% and 92 ± 12% versus 52 ± 44% for the unenhanced gauges. The PepTite™ and the endothelial-cell-layer-enhanced gauges showed lower sensing accuracy, and histology revealed a vascular layer near CPC particles. TGF-β1 increased bone formation when used prior to endothelial cell sodding. CSD prevented strain transfer to the femur. TGF-β1 and OP-1 surface enhancements produced accurate in vivo strain sensing on the rat femur after 3 weeks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-119
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001


  • Calcium phosphate ceramics
  • Endothelial cells
  • Osteogenic protein-1
  • Strain gauge
  • Transforming growth factor β-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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