Suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis through toll-like receptor 4-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

Joshua A. Smith, L. Jay Stallons, Justin B. Collier, Kenneth D. Chavin, Rick G. Schnellmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations

Abstract

Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MBin a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Down regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)346-357
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume352
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

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