Suitability of stages of female Encarsia pergandiella [Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae] for development of conspecific male hyperprasites

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21 Scopus citations


Encarsia pergandiella Howard females develop as primary parasitoids of immature whiteflies, whereas ♀♀ develop as secondary parasitoids on ♂♂ of their own species or on other primary whitefly parasitoids. In this experiment, male E. pergandiella development was examined in the laboratory at 24°C, using different stages of immature E. pergandiella females [enclosed within the cuticle of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)] as hosts. Unmated adult female E. pergandiella were caged individually for 24 h on leaves of plants with either 5-day (early to late 3rd instar larval), 7-day (late 3rd instar to prepupal), or 9-day (pupal) hosts. In a control treatment, hosts were allowed to complete development without exposure to unmated adult females. Subsequent emergence of ♂♂ (hosts) and ♀♀ from all treatments was recorded daily. Pupal (9-day)E. pergandiella females were found to be the most suitable hosts for development of ♀♀. Nine- and 7-day hosts were attacked at a similar rate, as indicated by a similarly low proportion of host emergence, but ♀♀ emerged at a significantly higher rate in the 9-day treatment than in the 7-day treatment. Development time of ♀♀ was 15±1 days in the 9-day treatment, and 16±1 days in the 7-day treatment (p<0.005). The proportion of hosts emerging from the 5-day treatment was not significantly different from the control treatment. The data suggest that the colonizing ability of E. pergandiella in greenhouses is likely to be limited by the delay of 7-9 days between oviposition of female eggs and the suitability of these ♂♂ for oviposition of male eggs. Since development time of the 2 sexes is similar this delay should cause a lack of synchrony in the emergence and mating of F1 ♂♂ and ♀♀.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-273
Number of pages9
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1989


  • Encarsia pergandiella Howard
  • Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)
  • autoparasitoid
  • host suitability
  • hyperparasite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Plant Science


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