Sub-aqueous sulfur volcanoes at Waiotapu, New Zealand

Stephen Grimes, David Rickard, Patrick Browne, Stuart Simmons, Timothy Jull

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Exhumed, sub-aqueous sulfur mounds occur in the Waiotapu geothermal area, New Zealand. The extinct mounds are <2 m high and composed of small (<0.5 cm) hollow spheres, and occasional teardrop-shaped globules. They are located within a drained valley that until recently was connected to Lake Whangioterangi. They were formed a maximum of 820 ± 80 years BP as a result of the rapid sub-aqueous deposition of sulfur globules, formed when fumarolic gases discharged through molten sulfur pools. Similar globules are now being formed by the discharge of fumarolic gases through a sub-aqueous molten sulfur pool in Lake Whangioterangi.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)729-738
Number of pages10
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1999


  • Fumaroles
  • Globules
  • New Zealand
  • Sulfur

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geology


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