This study presents a three-dimensional (3-D) forest reconstruction methodology using the new and emerging science of terrestrial full-waveform lidar scanning, which can provide rapid and efficient measurements of canopy structure. A 3-D forest reconstruction provides a new pathway to estimate forest structural parameters such as tree diameter at breast height, tree height, crown diameter, and stem count density (trees per hectare). It enables the study of the detailed structure study with respect to the canopy (foliage or branch/trunk), as well as the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) and a canopy height model (CHM) at the stand level. Leaf area index (LAI) and Foliage area volume density profile directly estimated from voxelized 3-D reconstruction agree with measurements from field and airborne instrument. A 3-D forest reconstruction allows virtual direct representation of forest structure, and provides consistent and reliable validation data sources for airborne or spaceborne data.