Raman spectroscopy is used to examine the effects of temperature, surface coverage, nature of the alkylsilane precursor (octadecyltrichlorosilane, methyloctadecyldichlorosilane, or dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane), and surface grafting method (surface or solution polymerized) on alkyl chain conformational order in a series of high-density octadecylsilane stationary phases ranging in surface coverage from 3.09 to 6.45 μmol/m2. Conformational order is assessed using the intensity ratio of the antisymmetric and symmetric v(CH2) modes as well as the frequency at which these Raman bands are observed. Conformational order increases with surface coverage. Temperature-induced surface phase changes are observed between 258 and 343 K for this homologous series of stationary phases that are demonstrated to adhere to the Clapeyron equation for a simple first-order transition. Phase changes are discussed in terms of variation of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy, and molar volume of the stationary phase, all of which depend on surface coverage. For the limited range of systems investigated, a correlation between stationary-phase preparation (surface versus solution polymerized and nature of the silane precursor) and extent of alkyl chain order is not clearly observed. Instead, alkyl chain order is largely dependent on bonding density. A molecular picture of temperature-induced disorder in octadecylsilane stationary phases is proposed, with disorder originating at the distal carbon and propagating toward the proximal carbon.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry