Statistical Tool Size Study for Computer-Controlled Optical Surfacing

Weslin C. Pullen, Tianyi Wang, Heejoo Choi, Xiaolong Ke, Vipender S. Negi, Lei Huang, Mourad Idir, Daewook Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Over the past few decades, computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) systems have become more deterministic. A target surface profile can be predictably achieved with a combination of tools of different sizes. However, deciding the optimal set of tool sizes that will achieve the target residual error in the shortest run time is difficult, and no general guidance has been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we present a computer-assisted study on choosing the proper tool size for a given surface error map. First, we propose that the characteristic frequency ratio (CFR) can be used as a general measure of the correction capability of a tool over a surface map. Second, the performance of different CFRs is quantitatively studied with a computer simulation by applying them to guide the tool size selection for polishing a large number of randomly generated surface maps with similar initial spatial frequencies and root mean square errors. Finally, we find that CFR = 0.75 achieves the most stable trade-off between the total run time and the number of iterations and thus can be used as a general criterion in tool size selection for CCOS processes. To the best of our knowledge, the CFR is the first criterion that ties tool size selection to overall efficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number286
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • computer-controlled optical surfacing
  • fabrication
  • manufacturing
  • tool influence function
  • tool size

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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