Stable 3D FDTD method for arbitrary fully electric and magnetic anisotropic Maxwell's equations

John Nehls, Colm Dineen, Jinjie Liu, Cody Poole, Moysey Brio, Jerome V. Moloney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We have developed a new fully anisotropic 3D FDTD Maxwell solver for arbitrary electrically and magnetically anisotropic media for piecewise constant electric and magnetic materials that are co-located over the primary computational cells. Two numerical methods were developed that are called nonaveraged and averaged methods, respectively. The nonaveraged method is first-order accurate, while the averaged method is second-order accurate for smoothly-varying materials and reduces to first order for discontinuous material distributions. For the standard FDTD field locations with the co-location of the electric and magnetic materials at the primary computational cells, the averaged method required development of the different inversion algorithms of the constitutive relations for the electric and magnetic fields. We provide a mathematically rigorous stability proof followed by extensive numerical testing that includes long-time integration, eigenvalue analysis, tests with extreme, randomly placed material parameters, and various boundary conditions. For accuracy evaluation, we have constructed a test case with an explicit analytic solution. Using transformation optics, we have constructed complex, spatially inhomogeneous geometrical object with fully-anisotropic materials and a large dynamic range of (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.), such that a plane wave incident on the object is perfectly reconstructed downstream.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2521
JournalInternational Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • 3D FDTD
  • cloaking
  • eigenvalue analysis
  • fully anisotropic
  • stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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