Src, PKCα, and PKCδ are required for αvβ3 integrin-mediated metastatic melanoma invasion

Andrew J. Putnam, Veronique V. Schulz, Eric M. Freiter, Heather M. Bill, Cindy K. Miranti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Background: Integrins, cell-surface receptors that mediate adhesive interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM), play an important role in cancer progression. Expression of the vitronectin receptor αvβ3 integrin correlates with increased invasive and metastatic capacity of malignant melanomas, yet it remains unclear how expression of this integrin triggers melanoma invasion and metastasis. Results: Two melanoma cell lines C8161.9 and M14 both express high levels of αvβ3 integrin and adhere to vitronectin. However, only the highly metastatic C8161.9 cells are capable of invading vitronectin-enriched Matrigel in an αvβ3-depenent manner. Elevated levels of PKCα and PKCδ, and activated Src were detected specifically in the highly metastatic melanoma cells, but not in the low metastatic M14 cells. Inhibition of Src or PKC activity suppressed αvβ3-dependent invasion. Furthermore, over expression of Src or PKCα and PKCδ was sufficient to confer αvβ3-dependent invasiveness to M14 cells. Stress fiber formation and focal adhesion formation were almost completely absent in C8161.9 cells compared to M14 cells. Inhibition of Src signaling was sufficient to restore normal actin architecture, and resulted in decreased p190RhoGAP phosphorylation and enhanced RhoA activity. Src had no effect on Rac activity. Loss of PKCα expression, but not PKCδ, by siRNA inhibited Rac and PAK activity as well as invasiveness. Loss of PKCα restored focal adhesion formation and partially restored stress fiber formation, while loss of PKCδ primarily restored stress fibers. Conclusion: The misregulated expression of PKCα and PKCδ and elevated Src activity in metastatic melanoma cells is required for efficient αvβ3-mediated invasion. PKCα and Src enhance αvβ3-mediated invasion in part by increasing the GTPase activity of Rac relative to RhoA. PKCα influences focal adhesion formation, while PKCδ controls stress fibers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10
JournalCell Communication and Signaling
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Src, PKCα, and PKCδ are required for αvβ3 integrin-mediated metastatic melanoma invasion'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this