Splitting Vertices in 2-Layer Graph Drawings

Reyan Ahmed, Patrizio Angelini, Michael A. Bekos, Giuseppe Di Battista, Michael Kaufmann, Philipp Kindermann, Stephen Kobourov, Martin Nollenburg, Antonios Symvonis, Anais Villedieu, Markus Wallinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Bipartite graphs model the relationships between two disjoint sets of entities in several applications and are naturally drawn as 2-layer graph drawings. In such drawings, the two sets of entities (vertices) are placed on two parallel lines (layers), and their relationships (edges) are represented by segments connecting vertices. Methods for constructing 2-layer drawings often try to minimize the number of edge crossings. We use vertex splitting to reduce the number of crossings, by replacing selected vertices on one layer by two (or more) copies and suitably distributing their incident edges among these copies. We study several optimization problems related to vertex splitting, either minimizing the number of crossings or removing all crossings with fewest splits. While we prove that some variants are NP-complete, we obtain polynomial-time algorithms for others. We run our algorithms on a benchmark set of bipartite graphs representing the relationships between human anatomical structures and cell types.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-35
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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